PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT
Sources and media transfer of pollution
The most harmful product from sanitary landfill of communal waste is the leachate water i.e. filtrate. The waste materials that are released into aquatic environments through the filtrate have very harmful impact on the oxygen regime, and therefore on the living organisms that exist therein. The harmful effects are resulting from the intensive processes and the biological decomposition, because o large amounts of oxygen, required for the wildlife is being used up.
To reduce the risk of harmful effects of leachate and landfill gas, a detailed evaluation of the engineering solutions is recommended. This will provide preventive protection against uncontrolled leakage of leachate and landfill gas in the appropriate ecosystems, with additional installation of a modern monitoring system. For purification of the filtrate, a proper station must be constructed. The costs of exploitation hereof will mainly depend on the required degree of purification.
System for monitoring the impact of the landfill on the ecosystem
The conducted research on the ecological – technological project indicates that the landfill Drisla requires a modern monitoring system.
This system should enable:
- monitoring the operation of the landfill
- successful implementation of the sanitary landfill technology, and
- achieving the necessary environmental protection and protection of employees of the landfill.
A special problem in maintaining the air quality is expected to be the methane, both on local and on global level (the predicted greenhouse phenomenon). After activating the incinerator for hazardous waste the gas fluororods and the chloride should be deactivated in the air , as well as the total organic matter (TOS) and the depositable substances with heavy metals in them (lead, cadmium and thallium).
Choosing a concept for minimizing the amount of solid waste disposal
The future usage of the landfill Drisla is based on parallel implementation of the preventive strategy for managing the solid waste. The main objective of this strategy is to reduce the harmful impact that the communal solid waste has on the environment. This objective should be achieved by minimizing the amount of waste for disposal by way of selective collection, followed by separation of waste. It is supposed to create the conditions for the removal of hazardous substances contained in waste.
For successful implementation of these measures for preventive strategy, the realization of the following is recommended:
- introduce a system of selected waste collection in special containers for mixed and dry waste;
- installing a line for separation of plastics, paper and metals;
- construction of facilities for the incineration of Medical waste and separation of plastics, leather, rubber, and
- installing a system intended for the exploitation of the landfill gas and the heat gained from the combustion of the waste.
Economics of investment, environmental benefits and dynamics of priority projects
The ecological-economic evaluation of the future usage of Drisla is based on previously established development concept for this sanitary landfill. The basics of this concept, together with the dynamics of the realization of certain projects and investments needed on annual basis are shown in the Action Plan on the next page.
The short- term development activities are focused on solving the most acute problems related to the providing of technical requirements for the ecological performance of the technological stages of delaying and covering the waste. Furthermore, focus is laid on leachate capture as the most dangerous byproduct for the ecosystem.
The economic evaluation included costs for ongoing operations. These costs relate to the following:
- usage of mobile machinery landfill;
- supply of fuel, energy and spare parts;
- maintenance of facilities, equipment and energy systems;
- servicing operation and maintenance of systems for capturing and treatment of leachate, landfill gas, surface and underground waters;
- using the monitoring system, taking samples and laboratory testing of water samples , gas solid waste
- costs for salaries and contributions for the operational workforce and the technical and administrative management.
The economic evaluation is based on the following criteria and assumptions:
- Drisla’s work in terms of waste depositing without previous selection and separation;
- increase the amount of solid waste deposited at a rate of 2% per year;
- average cost of disposal 11 Euros / ton;
- selling electricity from its own production at a cost of 28 EUR/MWh.
- 100% deposit of generated waste in urban areas and 90%, deposit of the generated waste from rural areas;
- increase in operating expenses for the first five years at a rate of 5% annually, then at a rate of 2% annually,
- and more.
The environmental effects resulting from the implementation of the proposed priority projects, , are rated as very important – although the value cannot be expressed per se – and their manifestation should comprise:
- reducing the health risk of the of people living in the rural areas near the landfill, thus reducing the costs for the population’s healthcare;
- providing greater and more environmentally acceptable crop in the production of the agricultural and farming products by using less polluted water in agriculture and farming;
- eliminating conditions for diseases of undefined origin as a result of the dangerous action of toxic and infectious substances from the industrial and clinical waste, which are treated and accepted in the sanitary landfill;
- Preservation of the natural resources by transforming certain fractions of solid waste into usable raw materials and products through recycling;
- eliminating the need for new land to expand the landfill through rational use of the advantages offered by the natural features and the available infrastructure at the site of the landfill;
- indirect saving of non-renewable energy sources through designated use of thermal energy that is released during combustion of landfill gas, clinical and other combustible waste;
- indirect saving of non-renewable energy sources because of glass won from communal waste, as opposed to its production from primary raw materials;
- lower emissions of pollutants in waste recycling, in comparison with the production of metals, paper, glass and plastics from primary minerals and other raw materials;
- drastically reduce pollution by eliminating the physical penetration of uncontrolled leachate and landfill gas in the ecosystem, and
- indirect positive environmental effects in urban and other areas to improve the quality of life and labor productivity as a result of timely and environmentally safe reception and care of communal and clinical waste at the landfill Drisla.